Non fragmented areas Non fragmented areas Early stage Transformation stage Advanced stage Core area Areas above 2 000 me tres above sea level Alpine Protected Areas Alpine Protected Areas Major city Major river Water bodies Alpine Convention perimeter National border 1 4 2 5 3 66 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come Map 5 Non fragmented areas and protected areas in the Alps In order to identify solutions for the three landscape types of ecological connectivity described above the following elements should be considered 1 Landscape fragmentation due to urban sprawl and rapidly progressing road construction and river engineering entails a number of negative impacts such as barrier effects causing a loss of natural connectivity between individual populations of the fauna SEILER 2002 These phenomena are linked to an increasingly intensive use of the ag ricultural land in the densely populated valleys of the Alps and contribute to the rst category of landscape and situation speci ed above Ecological Intervention Areas Solutions to overcome fragmentation in these areas are usually not highly very visible and can be more or less technical For all new construction and long term land use strategies landscape plan ning should integrate solutions to overcome frag mentation At a minimum this could include tun nels bridges and water channels for the involved species Costs for these basic measures must be included when calculating the budgets for all new projects and special programmes must be devel oped to capitalise on pre existing infrastructure Ecological Intervention Areas 2 Nevertheless with regard to ecological connectivity and functioning ecosystems the Alps are still rich in fairly intact landscapes These intact areas need to be identi ed at an Alps wide scale and a coher ent landscape planning concept for the whole Al pine area should be developed in cooperation with all Alpine states and members of the contracting River renaturalisation on the Coisetan River France

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