14 2 5 3 58 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 2009 Following up on its Biodiversity Strategy of 2008 given that Bavarian biodiversity continues to decline Bavaria prepared its Biodiversity Pro gramme 2030 StMUV 2014 Concrete measures are now bundled in this interdepartmentally coordi nated programme document In terms of creating ecological networks Bavaria has made signi cant progress through its creation of the Bavarian Nature Network BayernNetzNatur consisting of core areas buffer zones and connectivity elements Particularly advanced is the county Landkreis of Berchtesgaden where almost 45 percent of the county territory is under some form of nature protection The Berchtesgaden National Park is the largest of these protected areas Landratsamt Berchtesgadener Land 2015 As Germany s only Alpine National Park it bor ders the Austrian federal state of Salzburg The Park has implemented many projects to enhance biodiversity conservation and ecological connectivity over the last several years see also the interview with Michael Vogel Director of Berchtesgaden National Park in chapter 2 This large protected area 210 square kilometres is also the core and buffer zone of the biosphere reserve Ber chtesgadener Land and a Natura 2000 site It is a pilot area of the Alpine Convention and as such engages in the Platform Ecological Network The park manage ment initiated a regional process in the transboundary Pilot Region Berchtesgaden Salzburg between 2008 and 2011 during the ECONNECT project s implementation One of the park management s current goals is the ex tension of the JECAMI online mapping software devel oped by ECONNECT to become an Alps wide standard Similarly Baden Württemberg has among other regu lations its own Nature Conservation Act Gesetz des Landes Baden Württemberg zum Schutz der Natur und zur P ege der Landschaft which was last amended in 2015 Landesrecht BW Bürgerservice 2015 This law makes speci c reference to the creation and protec tion of ecological networks including those across federal state borders It requires all public planning authorities to take the concerns of ecological networks into account in their planning and actions Ecological networks are to be secured in regional plans and land use plans to the extent that is required In 2010 the forest research institute FVA of the Ministry for Rural Areas and Consumer Protection developed a general wildlife corridor plan Generalwildwegeplan GWP for Baden Württemberg FVA 2010 It is primarily a forest related sectoral planning instrument for a broad ecological network and is meant to be an integral part of a national or international ecological network of wildlife corridors Furthermore in 2012 the creation of an ecological network that is mandated by the Nature Conservation Act was included in the State s latest landscape plan LUBW 2015 In addition to the framework laws there are Land Stewardship Directives LPR Bayerisches Staatsmin isterium der Finanzen für Landesentwicklung und Heimat 2015 Ministerium für Ländlichen Raum und Verbraucherschutz Baden Württemberg 2015 in both provinces which engage whenever special require ments for the preservation of the cultural landscape and nature conservation need to be considered Not only farmers and other persons under private law but also organisations associations and local authorities are taken into account The provinces grant partial nancial assistance to communal entities landscape care associations NGOs and property owners for measures addressing the care maintenance and development of protected areas and areas worthy of protection as well as individual constituents of nature 2 3 4 Italy Mountain regions enjoy special legal protection in the Italian Constitution and several mountain related Acts have been enacted since the 1950s mainly refer ring to improving the living conditions of mountain communities Italy s legal structure also has a degree of federalism Randier 2009 While there are national en vironmental laws speci c environmental management competence is transferred to the regions and other local bodies 28 The term province is used differently in Italy than in Austria or Germany In Italy a province provincia is an administrative division between a municipality comune and a region regione As in the case of France therefore the region is the pertinent ad ministrative structure when it comes to the implemen tation of ecological networks Spatial and landscape planning is subject to concurrent legislation by both the state and the regions as are the legal frameworks on protected areas Minambiente not dated Italy prepared its National Biodiversity Strategy through a participatory process that included various institutional social and economic stakeholders It was agreed upon between the state and regions in Octo ber 2010 The three major pillars of the strategy are biodiversity and ecosystem services biodiversity and

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