14 2 5 3 57 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come currently made up of 13 reserves and covers an area of nearly 2 900 hectares Région Rhône Alpes NDb Some of these protected areas were gazetted as recently as March 2015 The region has also identi ed priority ar eas for the rst six years of implementation of the SRCE Région Rhône Alpes NDc With co nancing from the EU the region has created a series of green corridors in areas where biodiversity is threatened Rhône Alpes Region 2016 These corridors are meant to connect or restore different natural core areas in order to preserve the ecological continuity of the region They are based on a system of land contracts constructed around a detailed ve year action programme which are on average nancially supported to about 50 percent by the region In the PACA region in addition to its somewhat con fusingly titled Global Biodiversity Strategy a new regional environmental pro le Le pro l environne mental regional PER as well as some action briefs were published in 2015 Région PACA 2015 DREAL PACA 2015 Particularly relevant for ecological net works is Action Plan 2 Management and creation of protected areas and protection of threatened heritage species It aims to strengthen the protected area net work to increase its representativeness and functional ity and to complete the regional network of protected areas The PACA region also produced a map 2013 of the major connectivity needs and pressures for both green and blue continuum zones BdCarto 2013 2 3 3 Germany Germany has a key federal environmental law the Federal Nature Conservation Act Bundesnaturschut zgesetz BNatSchG of 2010 The law requires the lasting protection of biodiversity and speci cally demands the maintenance of viable populations of wildlife and wild plants protection of their habitats and of the possibility of an exchange between popula tions migration and resettlement This law clearly requires ecological connectivity protection and en hancement measures There are also a number of ad ditional national environment laws Like in Austria in addition to national laws there are federal state provincial laws and regulations However unlike in Austria the new German Federal Nature Con servation Act of 2010 created for the rst time a direct and federally applicable law for conservation that in many areas overrides the nature conservation laws of Germany s federal states and has led to numerous changes in the current legal situation In addition to a new emphasis in its objectives the law includes above all innovations in impact regulation and also in the protection of species The German National Strategy on Biological Diversity was rst published in November 2007 and is now in its fourth edition 2015 BMUB 2007 In the actionable areas C Aktionsfelder Action C1 is dedicated to ecosystem connectivity and protected area networks This mentions the expansion of the NATURA 2000 protected area network based on the EU Habitats and Birds Directives By federal law the German provinces Länder are required to establish a network of connected ecosystems covering at least ten percent of the land area which in contrast to NATURA 2000 should not only target specially desig nated habitat types and species but should also include all native animal and plant species as well as their habi tats It places particular emphasis on ecological net works outside protected areas Action C9 settlements and traf c acknowledges that ecological connectivity must be considered when planning federal and pro vincial traf c infrastructure and that a federal pro gramme of measures on fragmentation and networks Zerschneidung Vernetzung needs to be developed Ecological connectivity is also mentioned as essential for allowing migration of species that are impacted by climate change Similarly Action C12 rural develop ment mentions the need for provincial governments to support the establishment of regional parks and green networks surrounding larger cities Only the province of Baden Württemberg and the province Freistaat Free State of Bavaria contain Alpine territory Both have already prepared their own biodiversity strategies Several of the focus areas of these strategies are directly relevant to implementing ecological networks Bavaria which has the largest share of the Alps in Germany has its own Nature Conservation Act Bayrisches Naturschutzgesetz most recently amended in 2015 Bayrisches Landesamt für Umwelt 2015 This speci cally refers to an ecological net work as well as species and ecosystem biotope protection programmes In addition to the Nature Conservation Act the Bavarian Forest Law Waldg esetz like the German National Forest Strategy also requires biodiversity protection Furthermore the Bavarian State Development Plan LEP includes ob jectives and principles for a Bavaria wide ecological biotope network Platform Ecological Network

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