14 2 5 3 39 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 1 6 Fostering cooperation globally A memorandum of cooperation between the Convention on Biological Diversity the Alpine Convention and the Carpathian Convention Bettina HEDDEN DUNKHORST Federal Agency for Nature Conservation Division of International Nature Conservation Bonn Germany The Convention on Biological Diversity CBD which became effective in 1993 is the largest and most com prehensive international convention related to biodi versity Its three major goals are 1 the conservation of biodiversity 2 the sustainable use of its components and 3 a fair and equitable sharing of the bene ts aris ing from the utilisation of genetic resources At the 9th Conference of the Parties of the CBD held in Bonn in 2008 the Alpine Convention the Carpathian Con vention Framework Convention Carpathians 2003 and the CBD signed a Memorandum of Cooperation MoC This agreement aims to foster cooperation and to create synergies in terms of exchange of experiences and best practices capacity development and project implementation related to biodiversity Building on the CBD s Program of Work on Mountain Biological Diversity CBD 2004 and the experiences of the two European conventions the MoC speci cally stresses the importance of an ecological network as a means to facilitate continuity and connectivity of natural and semi natural habitats at national regional and global levels Fostering regional cooperation and national implementation by member states are goals central to the CBD s mandate CBD 2010 To date joint activities among mountain regions in response to the MoC have focused primarily on Alpine and Carpathian initiatives Yet there is substantial scope for mutual exchange and learning including other mountains around the world In the Alps for instance substantial competence on ecological con nectivity has developed in terms of stakeholder par ticipation capacity development Geographical Infor mation System GIS based planning instruments and the establishment of Pilot Regions Ulrich Schneider et al 2009 These experiences could be useful for other mountain regions Equally though more holistic non sectoral ecosystem oriented approaches towards sustainable development that integrate land use and climate change as outlined in the CBD s Program of Work on Mountain Biological Diversity and pursued elsewhere could be valuable approaches for European mountain regions The recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals United Nations 2015 especially target 6 6 and 15 1 and Paris Climate agreement article 5 1 on adaptation provide added impetus for effective implementation and for achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets of the CBD s Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011 2020 and the Sustainable Develop ment Goals in mountain ecosystems United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 2015 Furthermore as part of the preparation of the 6th Re port on the State of the Alps on greening the economy an initiative to mainstream biodiversity conservation in the Alpine region into other sectors has begun a new project that aims to identify the contribution of multi sectoral measures to foster ecological connectivity for greening the economy Signing ceremony of the Memorandum of Cooperation between the Convention on Biological Diversity the Alpine Convention and the Carpathian Convention

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