14 2 5 3 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 190 underpasses is essential The conduits should run paral lel to the road and should if possible be supplemented with guide structures placed at right angles to the tun nel openings These crossing aids for amphibians and small animals should be incorporated at an early stage during road building and should be ready for operation before traf c is permitted to use the road Retro tting of these systems is rarely possible due to the high costs involved The advantage of these permanent protection systems is that they work all year round and require very little management 5 Measures in landscape planning in a long term perspective The question of connectivity needs to be integrated in to all urban and landscape planning policies legislation and documents A binding and robust legal framework is required or if one already exists it needs to be implemented Example of measure Taking account of the elements of ecological networks in planning tools land use plans landscape develop ment strategies and more The consideration of cen tral elements of a biotope network in spatial planning is extremely important for the long term and sustain able creation of a biotope network This is the only way to ensure long term connectivity Planning must however be exible enough to take account of the dynamic character of the biotope network Depend ing on the type and signi cance of the elements they should be taken into account in the design of different tools and at different levels at the local level areas for a small scale network at the regional level key migra tion corridors and solutions for major con ict points There are already a number of examples in existence notably in Switzerland with the creation of the REN in guidance planning Richtplanung in Germany with the legally binding integration of a landscape plan Informational sign explaining restoration measures taken along the river Coisetan in order to improve ecological connectivity in this area located in the corridor between the two mountain massifs Bauges and Belledonne in Savoy France

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