14 2 5 3 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 189 1 Analysis of the existing barriers The actual barriers in the area need to be de ned in order to determine concrete measures to overcome these obstacles 2 De nition of remaining permeable landscape patches and interlinked habitats Spatial analysis and observed species migration can delineate speci c persisting wildlife corridors 3 Identi cation of movement needs of species Permeability measures in the densely populated inner Alpine valleys need to be modi ed along the lines of speci c species needs by adapting and enriching urban planning with biodiversity foster ing measures The goal of maintaining a generally permeable landscape matrix is largely unrealistic in this category of SACA As a minimum requirement the movement and genetic exchange for threatened or important local species must be ensured Example of measure Measures for seasonal amphibian migration Most am phibians in Central Europe undertake various migra tions during their lives including the seasonal spring migrations to their spawning grounds They invariably encounter numerous barriers that they must overcome especially the dense transport network where millions of amphibians are killed by vehicles every year There are many measures which could be taken to protect am phibians during migration and to help reduce the barrier effects these include warning signs for drivers mobile seasonal fences for amphibians substitute spawning grounds temporary road closures and permanent pro tection systems amphibian tunnels and more 4 Measures for green infrastructure Construction measures to allow the movement of species are often among the last tools employed in areas that are no longer permeable They should be well placed and targeted towards enabling speci c species passage It is important to note that contin ued movement on both sides of the actual barrier must be enabled Example of measure Corridors for small animals Underpasses for small animals are pipes made from concrete or steel that are incorporated into the road body crossways or at angles as crossing aids for small mammals amphibians rep tiles and invertebrates Conduits obstruct animals free access to the road and lead them to the underpasses An uninterrupted link between the conduits and the be framed by robust nature protection policies speci cally adapted for these valleys These regionalised and detailed policies must reach far beyond the established general nature protection acts of the individual coun tries with their low spatial resolution Furthermore these processes must be rmly inte grated into the respective urban and spatial planning concepts Coherent landscape planning is just as im portant as concentrated and land sparing economic activities Externally driven developments such as a rapid market globalisation can if ignored in the plan ning process strongly and negatively impact local efforts to conserve biodiversity and ecological con nectivity Intensive agricultural practices and wide spread monoculture deserts need to be mitigated by ef cient landscape defragmentation measures The promotion of public regional transport especially to and from tourist destinations in the concerned val leys can further enhance ecological connectivity in these intensively utilised valleys A new economic model based on regionally adapted in dustries and economic activities for the Alpine valleys combined with a participative governance approach in regional planning processes could constitute the main stay for a more balanced development of Alpine valleys Today several industries based primarily on energy availability in the Alpine valleys still persist but these currently have only scant justi cation for their pres ence in these fragile inner Alpine sites for example the French Maurienne and Romanche valleys Finally the often uncontrollable and unpredictable dynamic factors emanating from political and general social trends strongly in uence the way that societies perceive and deal with nature and especially with such technical aspects as connectivity A better general un derstanding of eco systematic approaches is necessary for both society and European policy makers Actions and measures employed Concrete measures must be undertaken in these Alpine valleys within the next years if connectivity is to be maintained Measures can exist on different levels and scales and can face varying degrees of dif culty They should also be implemented in the most ef cient way A profound knowledge of the local situation is necessary and this can be achieved through a variety of means in cluding spatial analysis for example JECAMI site visits and stakeholder and expert interactions to verify results Speci c steps and measures are as follows

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