14 2 5 3 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 176 Map 14 gives an overview of the current status of connectivity in the Alps according to an analysis us ing the JECAMI tool coupled with expert knowledge The extrapolation for the Alps shows an image where large inner Alpine areas are still well connected while outer Alpine surroundings are largely affected by fragmentation hindering the migration of species to and from the Alps 5 4 1 The aim of the map The intention of the map is to illustrate the Alpine situation as a whole in a very general way Local situ ations and regional contexts are not considered and need to be evaluated in a more precise way by local visits and territorial analyses Nevertheless the pic ture is interesting and reveals a lot about the Alpine situation of connectivity con rming that beside some very fragmented inner Alpine valleys the main bar riers to connectivity are those surrounding the Alps and these create real obstacles for an exchange with the extra Alpine regions The map illustrates the ecological connectivity poten tial the barriers and possible wildlife corridors by tak ing into account the land use expert knowledge about barriers and the technical JECAMI analysis based on scienti c and statistic indicators 5 4 2 The approach of the map In order to evaluate the coherence of activities within the type of landscape according to prin ciples of sustainability a classi cation scheme of land use data has been implemented Corine Land Cover data available for the whole of Central Europe was classi ed according to impact on the natural environment 5 4 Alpine connectivity A green island Guido PLASSMANN Alpine Network of Protected Areas ALPARC Chambéry France Maja RAPP Swiss National Park Zernez Switzerland Rudolf HALLER Swiss National Park Zernez Switzerland Three reference scales were considered for three clas si cations 1 The Cost Surface Classi cation of the Southeastern Ecological Framework Carr et al 2002 2 Mean Species Abundance relative to land cover land use of Cross roads of Planet Earth s Life Project ten Brink et al 2006 3 Habitat Protection and Spatial Planning Kias 1990 This classi cation method was developed in an earlier project called The Continuum Suitability Index CSI a model approach of ecological connectivity across the Alps that was carried out under the Interreg IV B project ECONNECT in 2010 for the indicator land use Table 8 shows the classi cation scheme Additionally the major motorways of central Europe have been overlaid European data of traf c volume was available for visualisation of main traf c arteries across the Alps UNECE 2005 Unfortunately traf c census data from Italy was missing so that motorways are mapped with a constant line width for this country Data Source Land use Corine Land Cover European seamless 100 metres raster database Version 18 5 European Environment Agency Roads United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Census of Motor Traf c 2005 To further highlight the importance and impact of dense demographic features a second map map 15 illustrates quite clearly the situation of Alpine demog raphy within the context of ecological connectivity

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