14 2 5 3 16 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come The Grossglockner 3 798 metres the highest mountain of Austria is located in the Hohe Tauern National Park Looking at it from an institutional point of view there are now many inter governmental organisations that address biodiversity conservation concerns either as their primary mandate or as part of a broader mission including several United Nations and European Union agencies as well as non governmental organisations Their work and that of national and local government agencies has led to a sizeable number of additional legal instruments policies guidelines and strategy documents However many of these instruments are of a voluntary nature and as such lack the teeth that would be needed to compete with con icting land use interests Svadlenak Gomez et al 2014b At an Alpine level challenges regarding coordinated conservation efforts among different institutions particularly across federal state borders within nation states and between the various countries remain The history of collaborative conservation efforts is more recent Transboundary collabora tion is facilitated through some European Union programmes such as the Alpine Space Programme of the European Regional Development Fund and there are some examples of successful cross border collaboration for the establishment of ecological networks as is described in other chapters of this publication Even though such collaboration has faced unique challenges associated with national legal and structural particularities that have arisen over centuries the 21st century s common global and European nature conservation goals encourage trans sectoral and trans border alliances holding out an aspirational promise of success in conserving the Alps outstanding natural and cultural heritage

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