14 2 5 3 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 154 The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity TEEB study emphasises that ecosystem serv ices are closely linked to economics The main goal of TEEB is to de ne a reliable methodology for valuing ecosystem services trying to un derstand the environmental costs and bene ts of exploiting natural resources The underlying idea of TEEB is that the value of an ecosystem is not only related to exploitable goods but that there are several other bene ts whose value is less clear because they have no market price If the non market bene ts were included in plan ning the damages associated with the exploita tion of the environment could be assessed more comprehensively In a recent study a list of nine priority ecosystem services for the Alps was developed These ecosystem services were divided into three main groups provisioning services regu lating and maintenance services and cultural services as proposed by the CICES classi ca tion This concept is strictly linked to the total economic value TEV approach stating that the value of natural resources is composed of sev eral components Direct use value the bene t obtained from a direct consumption of the resource Indirect use value the bene t derived from an interaction between users and nature but with out consumption of the resource for example recreation in a forest Option value the value of conserving resources unused today in order to obtain higher bene ts in the future mainly derived from the current rate of interest Quasi option value the value of leaving re sources untouched today in order to obtain future bene ts from alternative and still to be discovered uses Non use values values of the resources them selves without considering the interactions with humans that is existence value intrinsic and bequest values The TEV approach focuses on the fact that the value of nature is more complex than the mere consump tion of goods Managing resources based only on harvestable quantities of goods may considerably deplete the total bene ts people obtain from eco systems Including conservation related and non use values in the planning phase of decision mak ing is fundamental to determining the actual costs and effects of development on the environment Box 1 Box 7 Total Economic Value TEV of ecosystem services

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