14 2 5 3 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 121 green areas created in compensation for natural spaces lost through construction of roads or fallow land in resi dential areas can enrich the landscape s appearance and make a valuable contribution to the biotope network Seeding with wild species provides a source of food and cover for wild fauna and depending on the mix of seeds used can also provide habitats for insects Maintenance and preservation of mixed orchards Mixed orchards are a characteristic and attractive fea ture of the cultural landscape in many Alpine regions and are among the most valuable patch biotopes The structural diversity in mixed orchards and the result ing diverse mosaic type habitats provide a habitat for a wide range of species of ora and fauna In inten sively used agricultural landscapes they constitute important connective structures in the local biotope network The conservation measures for these areas must include arrangements for mowing fertilising management and maintenance the preservation of ageing trees and more Encouragement of unpaved paths Depending on their type and the way in which they are built paths can have a low to high barrier effect Pathway systems and their peripheral areas do not necessarily have a fragmenting effect on all species of ora and fauna and if properly designed they can also form important elements of the biotope network They provide routes through the landscape and form buffer zones to inten sively farmed areas Additional measures can include the maintenance and restoration of traditional irrigation systems the pro motion of traditional pasturing with sheep cultivation areas in a sustainable way the maintenance of open areas by controlled burning and tree maintenance and preservation of pollarded trees 3 10 3 Conclusions Models and policies often focus either on landscape design that is implementation of corridors or land use practices that is less pesticide while sound man agement needs to combine both The main reason is that corridor quality is not independent of adjacent land use Le Coeur et al 2002 and that solely chang ing practices is not enough in providing new land scape elements especially perennial ones strip of grass hedgerows The territorial policies particularly with regard to biodiversity and to conservation of biological and extensive agriculture and of local prod ucts are often used only as an opportunity for politi cal propaganda without being integrated in to a strat egy that requires actions and funding that are imme diately available yet persistent in the long term It is therefore fundamental to see processes as composite and not only punctualted and simple These processes must include a bottom up phase The different ac tors must employ multiple modalities and address a variety of issues They must operate on the basis of a solid and informed technical scienti c background in order to manage integrated actions for larger spaces This warrants the creation of governance processes inspired by real problems within the territory and capable of amending decisions taken in haste

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