14 2 5 3 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 114 carrying capacity can be de ned as the capacity of the functioning ecosystem to supply a certain stream of services Calculation of the ESS supply and demand ratios needs an in depth knowledge of the socio ecological processes and related inter connections Grêt Regamey et al 2014 This suggests a new identity for the mountain territories along an ecological and economic gradient of functions and services offered and maintained by varying compatible activities and de ned by a Payment of Ecosystem Services PES ap proach This approach has recently been highlighted in the relationship between the need for renewable energy production and ESS preservation Hastik et al 2015 where the de nition of the adequate procedures in identifying sustainable strategies mitigates the dif culties and draws attention to the bene ts of ESS which is of paramount importance 3 9 7 Conclusions The Alpine region is composed of a mosaic of habitats and ecosystems subject to varying degrees of anthro pogenic impact that in uence the ecological balance through increased fragmentation and decreased ter ritorial connectivity ECONNECT 2011 Ecological con nectivity is closely related to biodiversity and there is strong evidence that biodiversity has a positive effect on the delivery of important ecosystem services These concepts are directly relevant to the conservation of functioning ecosystems that enable our survival as in dividuals Through its components including ecological dynamics ecosystem limitation and landscape dys trophy nature conservation is a primordial element of human existence Any aspect of human wellbeing must be seen in the context of this assumption Morelli and Møller 2015 Based on this knowledge the following key recommendations are provided to identify strategies of sustainable management resources in an Alpine context Researchers must develop tools to analyse and assess ESS in a meaningful and harmonised fashion and con tribute towards a more accurate and reliable decision making model This will ensure that results are compa rable Grêt Regamey et al 2014 Santolini 2014 Based on the variety of available methodologies re garding connectivity conservation landscape connec tivity ecological functionality it is important to start with one clear well de ned and framed objective in order to avoid subsequent misunderstandings during the development of planning strategies and the associ ated implementation decisions while consolidating the Ecological Network Santolini 2014 and the Green Infrastructure EEA 2013 The ecological economic assessment of biophysical ESS is elemental to the other types of ESS and provides the basis in assessing the carrying capacity of a FEU This priority assessment improves the compatibility of the direct use of natural capital and preserves the functions that sustain the ecosystem and the landscape while re ducing con icts between competing uses Bastian 2013 The integration of ESS and natural capital values into economic processes by means of tools such as PES offers the opportunity to improve habitat condition connectivity and the ecosystem func tionality This has the potential to re establish the economic balance between users and producers and to maintain functional ecosystems to the ben e t of the mountain population living and working in those areas Hay harvest in Nature Park Gruyère Pays d Enhaut

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