14 2 5 3 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 110 the dispersion dynamics of species and or functional communities Lambeck 1997 When taken into con sideration this approach can help maximise the overall bene ts derived from the development of landscape conservation processes and functionality 3 9 3 Biodiversity ecological functionality and bioindicators Initiatives in recent years for example TEEB 2010 have facilitated consideration of the relationship be tween biological diversity and ecological functions It is clearly evident that biodiversity has positive effects on ecological functions Balvanera et al 2006 Con sidering that the diversity of species in an ecosystem corresponds to the complexity of their respective in teractions and the number of ways along which energy and information can pass through a community any alteration of biodiversity determined by direct and indirect factors and also induced by the transforma tions of the landscape due to changes in the ecosystem stability induces a progressive dystrophy loss of func tion that is a reduction in the habitats and ecosystems functionality The combination of niche overlap within the same scale and between different scales produces a strengthening of ecological resilience and thus the maintenance of a certain level of ecological functional ity Peterson et al 1998 It is important to appreciate that while ecosystem serv ices are the functional characteristics of ecosystems as a whole or a community the functions supporting them often depend on key species guild or habitat types Kremen 2005 Therefore it is the combination of redundancy among different species and scales that determines the robustness of the functional ecological resilience As a consequence of this considering only a single process for example the species distribution risks implementing actions that are inadequate in main taining ecosystem multifunctionality Santolini 2010 As a consequence species richness and their relative abundance become control tools and good indicators for the integrity diversity vulnerability and dystrophy of ecosystems For this reason many species based groups are suitable to be used in environmental evaluations AAVV 1983 and for the control of environmental al teration For example an aggregate index in Europe has Figure 12 Performance of ESS soil use model in the Alps Source CLC 2012

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