14 2 5 3 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 106 parameters of red deer were examined 67 animals were provided with GPS GSM collars and the col lected data was analysed The study served as a basis for an ef cient harmonisation of wildlife management measures between Vorarlberg Grisons and Liechten stein enabling seasonal migration while mitigating red deer human forestry con icts Migration routes of red deer and respective barriers for the animals were documented and the in uences of weather con ditions and disturbance factors were evaluated The daily and seasonal activity patterns of red deer showed marked differences between the three countries Here in particular a strong in uence of the supplementary winter feeding in Vorarlberg and distinct effects of the hunting system duration of hunting season hunting method disturbance by hunters were clearly demon strated Quiet resting zones as well as the location of winter feeding stations had a large in uence on migra tion and habitat use of the red deer In order to obtain better information for the enlargement of protected areas the in uence of different habitat factors on be haviour and habitat use of the animals was examined Prior to this Rätikon Project efforts were already underway by the late 1980 s attempting to include all hunted ungulate species At that time a Wildlife Ecological Spatial Planning WESP was developed on a national level with the different stakeholders in a collaborative approach This tool was imple mented in the hunting laws of the three countries to support large scale and integrated management of wildlife species Reimoser 1996 1999 The WESP tool was again used later in other federal states and regions for the harmonisation of wildlife manage ment between national parks and the relevant game ecological environment Zink et al 2008 Rei moser et al 2012 WESP could also be further de veloped with regard to Alpine ecological connectiv ity and management of hunting species integrated into general spatial planning To date cross border harmonisation of wildlife man agement and hunting remains in a long lasting dor mancy state within the Alpine region It is obviously dif cult to move forward from the entrenched indi vidual practices within the regions towards an Alps wide cross linked and integrated approach However as some positive examples show a lot can be achieved when people cooperate constructively and put com mon goals ahead of discordant customs The European lynx has been reintroduced to several locations in the Alps

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