14 2 5 3 Alpine Nature 2030 Creating ecological connectivity for generations to come 102 The risk of alien species invasions should not restrict the establishment of ecological connections between protected areas However management capacity should be established so that the control of newly spreading invasive species is coordinated and can be quickly enacted McDougall et al 2011b Invasive species often spread slowly initially lag phase before entering a phase of rapid spread Sakai 2001 Hence an early detection and warning system may be needed in the future Preventative measures against invasive species establishment are the most ef cient way to limit spread especially when targeted towards key invasion hubs Florance et al 2011 McDougall et al 2011b Stewart Koster et al 2015 In mountains this might involve management of low elevation source populations outside of protected areas McDougall et al 2011a McDougall et al 2011b Kueffer et al 2013a especially since high elevation populations are often naturally characterised by high rates of turnover Seipel et al in revision A further challenge will be how to manage range expanding native species that might have undesirable effects and whose spread might be promoted by connectivity in a similar way to alien species Figure 9 Examples of non native plants in mountain regions from around the world Source MIREN www mountaininvasions org Rumex acetosella Hawaii Verbascum thapsus Oregon Lupinus polyphyllus Switzerland Pinus contorta Southern Chile Eschscholzia californica Southern Chile Pilosella aurantiaca Australia

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