41Volunteer and paid work in sports clubs Sports clubs in Germany More than just exercise younger age groups of 19 to 26 year olds and also by adolescents up to the age of 18 This position therefore seems to be a good entry position to introduce young people to volunteer work Women are under represented on the board compared to the average female membership rate per club 35 9 in 2017 and in relation to the female population share of 50 7 in the same year with a share of 30 7 Women are least likely to hold the positions of club chairperson and sports directors while the proportion of women at least in the positions of secretary and youth director is above the average female membership rate per club cf Fig 9 These results must be treated critically especially from a sports management perspective It is apparent that sports clubs that have women on the board at all and clubs that have a higher proportion of female board members have fewer problems in var ious areas including member retention retention and recruitment of coaches and trainers and finances11 The aim of the clubs should therefore be to attract more women to the various board positions In this context however it is also apparent that in some sports clubs there is still need for improvement in this area as in 2017 the proportion of clubs that had women on the board was 77 i e almost a quarter of sports clubs in Germany had no wom en on the board at all The gender distribution of volunteer coaches and trainers also shows a slight shift in favour of men 58 male volunteers but among coaches and trainers working on a part time basis the propor tion of women is higher 58 2 Among full time coaches and train ers the gender distribution is relatively balanced 50 8 women 11 See in detail Wicker P Breuer C 2013 Understanding the importance of organiza tional resources to explain organizational problems Evidence from nonprofit sport clubs in Germany Voluntas 24 2 461 484 Wicker P Breuer C von Hanau T 2012 Gender effects on organizational problems Evidence from non profit sports clubs in Germany Sex Roles 66 1 105 116 and Wicker P Feiler S Breuer C 2020 Board gender diversity critical masses and organizational problems of non profit sport clubs European Sport Management Quarterly doi 10 1080 16184742 2020 1777453

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