8 WHO recommendations for physical activity As a guideline for sufficient physical activity the WHO published recommendations in 2010 which although they do not exclude the above mentioned risks can significantly reduce the probability of occurrence and which are currently largely accepted 7 The WHO recommendations differentiate between age groups For the adult population aged 18 years and over the following recommendation is made 150 minutes per week of moderate aerobic 8 phys ical activity or 75 minutes per week of high intensity aerobic physical activity or an equivalent combination of moderate and inten sive activity The activity should be performed in units of at least 10 minutes each In addition muscle strengthening activities involving the large muscle groups should be carried out two or more days a week WHO 2010 A distinction is therefore made between recommended endurance ac tivity and muscle strengthening activity 9 10 23 of the adult population is sufficiently physically active 45 in terms of endurance activities The benefits of physical activity and the costs of inactivity are at the economic level and in recognition of the WHO recommendations thus dependent on the level of activity i e the pro portion of the population that is sufficiently physically active in this sense In Germany the Rob ert Koch Institute RKI conducts regular health monitoring as part of the federal health report ing system 7 Guidelines or recommendations on physical activity or exercise have existed since before the WHO published them in 2010 such as the EU Guidelines on Physical Activity of 2008 EU 2008 Since then however the criteria of the World Health Organization of 2010 have provided the frame of reference and point of orientation for many national and in ternational recommendations and studies 8 Aerobic aerobic Greek for air and as a counterpart anaerobic endurance activities differ in the type of energy production required for the exercise With aerobic activity energy is produced with the help of fats and oxygen with more intensive anaerobic activity the body uses carbohydrates in addition to oxygen to produce energy during met abolic processes ISPO 2016 9 In some studies or contributions no differentiation is made between the forms of activity or only the endurance activ ity is reported which makes it difficult to compare the results of different studies or even country specific compari sons 10 Further differentiations refer to recommendations for specific target groups For example national recommendations for Germany also exist for children up to 4 years of age 5 17 years of age frail or very old persons over 85 years of age pregnant women persons with disabilities and persons with chronic diseases WHO 2018 Rütten Pfeifer 2016 WHO recommendations for physical activity for adults 18 years and older Endurance activity 2 5 hours per week of moderate activity or 1 25 hours per week of intensive activity or an equivalent combination of moderate and intensive activity in units with a minimum duration of 10 minutes each Muscle strengthening activity at least 2 days a week Source WHO 2010 Own illustration

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